People with grandparents from Orkney have a variation in a gene that could increase the chances of developing breast and ovarian cancer, research shows. One in 100 women who are descendants of families in Westray, Orkney, have the same change in the BRCA1 gene – one of the commonest genes linked to breast and ovarian cancer, according to the results. In Scotland, testing is currently available to people with a direct family connection to the BRCA1 gene, or who have a close history of ovarian or breast cancer in their family. As a result of these findings, plans for a pilot trial to widen testing to Westray people with a locally born grandparent, regardless of a family history of cancer, are being put in place by NHS Grampian and local cancer charity Friends of ANCHOR.
If the pilot proves successful, it may be extended to anyone in Scotland with a Westray-born grandparent. Around one in 1000 women across the UK have inherited a variation to the BRCA1 gene. A team of geneticists from the Universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh repeatedly discovered the same single change to this gene in women from Orkney with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Edinburgh Scientists studied genetic information from more than 2,000 volunteers with Orkney grandparents in the Orkney Complex Diseases Study (ORCADES). They discovered the BRCA1 variant in 1 per cent of men and women with historic Westray ancestors. As the gene variant is hereditary can affect multiple members of families. Risk-reducing surgery, breast screening with MRI from age 30 and lifestyle advice can all improve health for women with the gene, experts say. This research, funded by the Medical Research Council, is part of Viking Genes, which aims to discover the genes and any changes in these that could influence the risk of disease.
Professor Jim Wilson, Professor of Human Genetics, University of Edinburgh, said: “The fact that one in a hundred Orcadian women carry a high-risk variant for breast and ovarian cancer highlights the value of population studies such as Viking Genes, without which we would not know this. It is imperative that Scottish island populations are represented in research, to allow equitable delivery of genomic medicine across the country.”